Classification of the modern territorial dialects
Classification of the modern territorial dialects
of modern English regional dialects presents serious difficulties, since their boundaries are characterized by a large fluctuation, and locales are increasingly invading the area of distribution of dialectal speech. One of the most serious effort was undertaken by Ellis. [4; 86] Although this classification is not without drawbacks, it is generally quite accurately reflects the dialect map of modern Britain and adopted as the basis of many dialects. In general, based on the scheme Ellisa A., modern English dialects can be classified as follows:
|Northern dialects||1) Northumberland, North Durham; 2) Southern Durham, most of Cumberland, Westmorland, North Lancashire, hilly part of the West Riding of Yorkshire; 3) East Riding and North Riding of Yorkshire.|
|Medium dialects||1) Lincolnshire; 2) south-east Lancashire, sowing – East Cheshire, northern West Darbyshire; 3) northern-west Lancashire, southern, Ribble; 4) the average Lancashire, Isle of Man; 5) South Yorkshire; 6) most of Cheshire, North Staffordshire; 7) most of Darbyshire; 8) Nottinghamshire; 9) Flint and Denbigh; 10) east Shropshire, South Staffordshire, much of Warwickshire, South Darbyshire, Leicestershire.|
|Eastern dialects||1) Cambridgeshire, Rutland, North – East Northamptonshire; 2) most of Essex, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, Northamptonshire middle part; 3) Norfolk and Suffolk; 4) most of Buckinghamshire; 5) Middlesex, South East Buckinghamshire, South Hertfordshire, South-West Essex.|
|Western dialects||1) the west and south Shropshire (to the west of the River Severn); 2) Herefordshire, except eastern part, Radnor, eastern Breknoka.|
|Southern dialects||1) part of the Pembrokeshire and Glamorganshire; 2) Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, northern and eastern part of the county Somersetshire, most of Gloucestershire, south-west of Devonshire; 3) a large part of the county Hampshire, Isle of Wight, the majority of Berkshire, southern part of Sussex, app. part of Sussex; 4) sowing. Gloucestershire east. Herefordshire, Worcestershire, southern part of the county of Warwickshire, North Oxfordshire, South-West Northamptonshire; 5) most of Oxfordshire; 6) north of Surrey, north-west of Kent, 7) most of the counties of Kent, East Sussex; 8) West Somersetshire, northern-east Devonshire; 9) East Cornwall, most of Devonshire; 10) West Cornwall.|
of the main features of contemporary British regional dialects (and dialects of other languages) is their conservatism.or other deviations from the literary standard due mostly not evolution, namely the lack of evolution: the dialects are still many language phenomena of different periods in the history of language, as well as various foreign-language bedding – Scandinavian, Norman, etc.feature of modern English dialects is their variability at all language levels (phonetics, grammar and vocabulary in particular).authors also point to the fact that the characteristic feature of a system of dialects so-called “redundancy”. Have in mind, for example, such speed, used in Ireland as: It’s sorry you will be instead of “You will be sorry” or paraphrases like “I do love” instead of “I love”, used in the south-western counties, piling negatives in a phrase, etc.already mentioned above, the dialect – is a territorial or social dialect (language variants, used by one or another social group, or a group of people).dialects include a number of functionally and structurally different phenomena:
. Professional dialects – kind of social dialect, uniting people of one profession or one occupation. Slang (slang), dialects, consisting of more or less randomly chosen, modify and combine the elements of one or more natural languages and used (usually in oral communication) a particular social group to linguistic isolation, separation from the rest of the language community, sometimes as secret languages.may be noted such varieties of English slang, as:) the “reverse slang”: for example, yob instead boy;) “central Slang”: for example, ilkem instead of milk;) “rhyming slang”: for example, artful dodger instead lodger;) the so-called “medical Greek”: for example, douse-hog instead of house-dog.these types of slang are used to make language of a certain social group unclear for the uninitiated. With jargon is not specific distortion of existing words in the language, but also the numerous borrowings, the appearance of which is often modified so that they do not differ from the remaining words of the language.specialized nature of the jargon can be illustrated on the material of the vocabulary typical of various educational institutions: beyond the institutions specified vocabulary either not used or used in a different sense. For example, at Eton, the following jargon: scug “scrub”, “scoundrel”, tug “college student”, in Westminster School: bag “milk”, beggar “sugar”, in Winchester College: to go continent “stay home”, tug “tasteless”, stale “normal, simple”.
As rightly pointed out by Professor R.A Budagov, “public nature of language determines not only the conditions of his existence, but all of its features, especially its vocabulary and phraseology, grammar and style”. [2; 210]
. A special position among the social dialects of English is so-called slang. Under this concept is often summed up the most diverse phenomena of lexical and stylistic plan. Leading researcher English slang E. Partridge and his followers define slang as prevalent in the field of spoken very fragile, unstable, not codified, and often does erratic and random set of tokens that reflect social consciousness of people belonging to a particular social or professional environment. Slang is seen as a conscious, deliberate use of elements of common-literary vocabulary in spoken language in a purely stylistic purposes: to create the effect of novelty, unusual, different from the approved model, to transfer certain mood of the speaker, to give a concrete utterance, liveliness, expressiveness, precision, and, to avoid cliches. This is achieved, according to researchers, the use of such stylistic means as a metaphor (as Chesterton: “All slang is metaphor”), metonymy, synecdoche, litotes, euphemism.and literary standard (exemplary, normalized language, rules which are perceived as “right” and generally binding and which is opposed to dialects and colloquialisms) is inextricably linked not only because it appears dialect based on the standard, but also because, as a rule, locale is formed on the basis of dialect speech. Literary standard of English is no exception: in the 15th century. Britain abounded presence of many different dialects, to the extent that, as the inflow of population from the countryside to the city, these dialects are more and more confused and as a result formed locale (can you say that, initially, it was a form of London south-eastern dialect). Over time, this language was improved and was recognized as the language that is spoken by the educated part of the population.it would be wrong to assume that the standard – is recorded form of pronunciation, which is not subject to change. The natural evolution of the language, as well as various extra linguistic factors lead to change and literary standard (but the process of change is very slow). Certain rules of language out of use and replaced by new ones because of the disappearance of one reality and the appearance of others.degree of deviation from the standard dialect speech standard is determined by several factors: the history and development of dialect, socio-economic structure of society, etc. In many cases, you can find the dialect speech language rules that are already out of use in the locale.