The Gerund

§ 16. The gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized preserving at the same time its nominal character.

The gerund is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb, and coincides in form with Participle I.

§ 17. The double nature of the gerund.

As a natural result of its origin and development the gerund has nominal and verbal properties. The nominal characteristics of the gerund are as follows:

The gerund can perform the function of subject, object and predicative.

They say smoking leads to meditation. (Collins) (SUBJECT)

I like making people happy. (Shaw) (OBJECT)

The duty of all progressive mankind is fighting for peace. (PREDICATIVE)

The gerund can be preceded by a preposition.

I am very, very tired of rowing. (Hemingway)

Like a noun the gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun.

“I wonder at Jolyon’s allowing this engagement,”he said to Aunt Ann. (Galsworthy) — «ман ӽайронам, ки чихел Ҷон б никоӽ розӣ шуд>> гуфт ӯ ба холаи Анна. Is there any objection to my seeing her? (Galsworthy) — оё ягон кас зид нест,ким ан уро бинам?

The verbal characteristics of the gerund are the same as those of the participle:

The gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object.

I had now made a good progress in understanding and speaking their language. (Swift)

The gerund can be modified by an adverb.

She burst out crying bitterly. (Hardy)

The gerund has tense distinctions; the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. The forms of the gerund in Modern English are as follows:

 

Active

Passive

Indefinite

writing

being wrtten

Perfect

having written

having been written

There is no gerund in the Russian language and the English gerund is rendered in Russian in different ways:

by a noun.

Dancing had not begun yet… (Mansfield) — ракс холо сар нашудааст.

by an infinitive.

She had tea with Cipriano before leaving. (Lawrence) – пеш аз рафтан у чой бо чиприано нушид. It is no good hiding our heads under our wings. (Galsworthy) – сари худро ба ҷо кардан бефоида аст.

by деепричастие.

And without waiting for her answer he turned aid left us. (Du Maurier) — у ҷавоби вайро интизор нашуда баромада рафт

On seeing Bella he stopped, beckoned her to him, and drew her arm through his. (Dickens) —баробари Белларо дидан у ба наздаш хонд ва аз дасташ гирифт.

(d) by a subordinate clause.

Не regretted now having come. (Galsworthy) — акнун у аз омаданаш пушаймон шуд.

It should be observed that though the active forms of the gerund may be rendered in different ways, the passive forms are nearly always rendered by a clause.

As she contemplated the wide windows and imposing signs, she became conscious of being gazed upon. (Dreiser) — вакте ки у ба витрина менигарист у хис кард ки уро нигох карда истодаанд. After having been informed of the conference in my lady’s room… he immediately decided on waiting to hear the news from Frizinghall. (Collins) — баъди хабар додани оне ки ба хонаи миледи рафтаанд у хост истад ва маълумоте аз Фризингхолла гирад.

§ 18. The tense distinctions of the gerund.

The tense distinctions of the gerund, like those of the participle, are not absolute but relative.

The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb; depending on the tense form of the finite verb it may refer to the present, past, or future.

He can swim for any number of hours without tiring. (Hichens) – у метавонад соатхо оббози кунад у монда намешавад. She walked on without turning her head. (Hardy) — у ба ягон тараф нигох накарда рафт.

Gwendolen will not rest without having the world at her feet- (Eliot) — Гвендолен то тамоми чахонро нагирад орром намешавад.

No one could pass in or out without being seen. (Dickens) — хечкас даромада баромада наметавонист барои оне ки уро набинанд.

The Perfect Gerund denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb.

She denies having spoken with him. — у бо вай гап заданашро рад мекунад.

Не was ashamed of having shown even the slightest irritation. (Bennett) — у аз ларзиданаш шарм дошт гарчанде ки бекуват буд.

She really had been crying… out of anger at having been driven so hard. (Heym) — вай дар хакикат гиря мекард барои он ки бо у бад рафтор мекарданд .

However, a prior action is not always expressed by a Perfect Gerund; in some cases we find an Indefinite Gerund. This occurs after the verbs to remember; to excuse, to forgive, to thank and after the prepositions on (upon), after and without.

I don’t remember hearing the legend before. (Hardy) — ман дар хотир надорам ки ягон бор дар бораи ин кахрамон шунида бошам. You must excuse my not answering you before. (Collins) — шумо маро бубахшед ки ман ба шумо барвактар чавоб надодам

I thank you for restraining me just now. (Ch. Bronte) —ман аз щумо минатдорам ки шумо маро боз доштед

On leaving the house we directed our steps to the nearest shade. (Collins) — аз хона баромада мо ба суни соя рафтем. After walking about ten yards, he found the hat among the leaves. (Hardy) — баъд аз гузаштани 10 ярд у кулохи худро ёфт.

She passes through and disappears in the pantry without noticing the young lady. (Shaw) — у ба назди чевон омада рафта духтари чавонро ахамият намедод.

The Perfect Gerund may also be used after the above mentioned verbs and prepositions.

He did not remember having been in that room. (Galsworthy) — у ягон бор дар ин хона буданашро дар ёд надорад. After having denied herself to everybody, Miss Rachel, to our astonishment, walked into the midst of us of her own accord. (Collins) — баъди оне ки аз дидани касе ки набошад рад кард у худош баромада уро дид.

They parted at Cohen’s door without having spoken to each other again. (Eliot) — онхо дар назди дари кохен ягон гап нагуфта дур шуданд.

§ 19. The voice distinctions of the gerund.

The gerund of transitive verbs has special forms for the active and the passive voice.

He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to (Maugham) — онхо на гуш кардан на хонданро дуст намедоранд.

It is to be observed that after the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth the gerund is used in the active form, though it is passive in meaning.

“The slums want attending to, no doubt,” he said. (Galsworthy) – «бе шубха ба корхои факирона машгул шавед», — гуфт у. Не realized that his room needed painting. — у фахмид ки бояд хонаи уро рангу бор кунанд.

The child deserves praising. — тифл ба ба навозиш сазовор аст.

They were not worth saving. (Heym) — вайхо лоики халос кардан набуданд.

§ 20. Predicative constructions with the gerund.

Like all the verbals the gerund can form predicative constructions, i. e. constructions in which the verbal element expressed by the gerund is in predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by a noun or pronoun

I don’t like your going off without any money. (Maltz) —ман намехохам ки шум обе маблаг равед. Here the gerund going off is in predicate relation to the pronoun your, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the gerund.

The nominal element of the construction can be expressed in different ways.

1. If it denotes a living being it may be expressed:

(a) by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun.

His further consideration of the point was prevented by Richard’s coming back to us in an excited state. (Dickens) —фикри ояндаи у катъ карда шуд вакте ки Ричард ба хуш омад. Do you mind ту smoking? (Hardy) — шумо зид нестед ки ман сигор кашам?

(b) by a noun in the common case.

I have a distinct recollection of Lady Chiltern always getting the good conduct prize! (Wilde) — ман хуб дар хотир дорам ки хонум Чин барои рафторхои хубаш тухфа мегирифт.

Note. Thus in Modern English there are two parallel constructions

of the type: Fancy David’s courting Emily! and Fancy David courting Emily/These two constructions may be used indifferently, but sometimes there is a slight difference in meaning: in the first example the action (the verbal element of the construction) is emphasized, whereas in the second the doer of the action (the nominal element of the construction) is emphasized.

Occasionally examples are found where the nominal element of the construction is expressed by a pronoun in the objective case.

I hope you will forgive me disturbing you. (Du Maurier) — умедворам ки шумо маро барои норохат карданам мебахшед.

There are cases when the nominal element of the construction, though denoting a living being, cannot be expressed by a noun in the possessive case, but only by a noun in the common case, namely when it consists of two or more nouns or when it is a noun modified by an attribute in post-position.

I object to Mary and Jane going out on such a windy day. He felt no uneasiness now in the thought of the brother and sister being alone together. (Eliot) — у дигар фикри танхо мондани бародар ва хохарашро надорад.

Did you ever hear of a man of sense rejecting such an offer? — оё шумо ягонбор шунидаед ки одами боакл чунин таклифро рад кунад?

2. If the nominal element of the construction denotes a lifeless thing, it is expressed by a noun in the common case (such nouns, as a rule, are not used in the genitive case) or by a possessive pronoun.

I said something about my clock being slow. (Du Maurier) – ман ба у дар бораи тавакуф кардани соатам гуфтам.

… Peggotty spoke of… my room, and of its being ready for me. (Dickens) — … Пеготти дар бораи хучраи ман ва ончизеки ба ман омода карда буд гуфт.

3. The nominal element of the construction can also be expressed by a pronoun which has no case distinctions, such as all, this, that, both each, something.

I insist on bof/i of them coming in time. — ман омадани хардуи онхоро дар вакташ талаб кардам.

Again Michael… was conscious of something deep and private stirring within himself. (Galsworthy) — айкл дубора хис кард ки калби он бошиддаттар тапида истодааст.

Note. Some grammarians recognize the existence of two separate constructions: the gerundial construction (a construction whose nominal element is expressed by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun) and a construction with a half gerund (a construction whose nominal element is expressed by a noun in the common case, a pronoun in the objective case, or a pronoun which has no case distinctions).

0ffy to mind (in negative and interrogative sentences), to postpone, to put off cannot help, and some others.

A gerundial construction is nearly always rendered in Tajik by a subordinate clause, generally introduced by чи; ки; мисли, etc.

His being a foreigner, an ex-enemy was bad enough. (Aldington) — To, что он был, иностранец, бывший неприятель,

было уже плохо.

Her thoughts were interrupted at last, by the door opening gently. (Reade) — фикрхои у парешон шуд вакте ки дарро кушоданд.

I began to picture to myself… my being found dead in a day or two, under some hedge. (Dickens) — ман тасавур кардам ки чихел маро баъди якдуруз мурда дар назди ягон девор меёбанд.

§ 21. The use of the gerund.

In Modern English the gerund is widely used and often competes with the infinitive.

In the following cases only the gerund is used:

l. With the verbs and verbal phrases: to avoid. to burst out. to deny, to enjoy, to excuse, to fancy (in imperative sentences as an exclamation of surprise), to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to keep (on), to leave off (to mind (in negative and interrogative sentence ), to postpone, to put off, cannot help and some others.

He avoided looking at Savina. (Wilson) — у аз нигох кардани Сабина худдори кард.

… she burst out crying. (Collins) — у аз гиря кардан боз монд.

We all burst out laughing. (Braine) — мо хама аз хандидан боз мондем.

She denied having been at the station that evening. (Gaskell) —

У дар он шабнишини дар истгох буданашро рад мекунад.

… he enjoyed thinking of her as his future wife. (Eliot) — уро хамсари ояндааш фикр кардан хушнуди медод.

Excuse my leaving you in the dark a moment. (Dickens) — бубахшед ки ман шуморо каме дар торики мондам.

Fancy finding you here at such an hour! (Hardy) — ман хато фикри шморо дар ин4о дар ин вакт гузоштанро накардам!

Forgive my speaking plainly. (Hardy) — бубахшед ки ман руирост гап мезанам.

When the Committee had finished deciding on its politics, he had gone home. (Heym) — баъд аз накшахои худро буд кардан комитет ба хона рафт.

Willoughby gave up singing and looked at Karen and Yates from under drooping eyelids. (Heym) — Уиллоубхо сурудхониро бас карда ба Карен ва Ятес нигох карданд.

They went on talking. (Hardy) — онхо гапзаниро давом доданд.

Doctor keeps coming and having a look at me. (Priestley) — духтур нигохубини маро давом медихад.

It was quite rough; but I kept on rowing. (Hemingway) —бахр ором набуд ва ман завракрониро давом додам.

I have left off shooting. (Eliot) — ман шикоркуниро бас кардам.

Do you mind my asking you one or two more questions? (Collins) — шумо зид нестед ки ман ба шумо каме савол дихам?

We could put off going over the house. (Eliot) — мо метавонистем ки нигох кардани хонаро боз дорем.

She couldn’t help smiling. (Mansfield) — у наметаонист ки нахандад.

With the following verbs and verbal propositions used with proposition: to accuse of, to agree to, to approve of to complain of to depend on, to feel like, to insist on, to look like, to object to, to persist in, to prevent from, to rely on, to speak of, to succeed in, to suspect of, to thank for, !(J think of, to give up the idea of, to look forward to, not to like the idea о/ to miss an (the) opportunity of and some others.

They accuse me of having dealt with the Germans. (Heym) онхо маро барои бо немисхо кор доштанам гунахкор мекунанд. It was clear now… that Abraham never had agreed to their being married today. (Stone) — акнун хама чиз аён буд ки Авраам имруз хонадор шуданашро рад мекард.

You did not approve of my playing at roulette. (Eliot) — Вы не одобряли того, что я играла в рулетку.

All the happiness of my life depends on your loving me (Eliot) —хушбахтии зиндагии ман аз дуст доштани шумо маро вобаста аст.

I don’t feel like going out. (Wilson) — ман намехохам ки бароям.

I insist on being treated with a certain consideration. (Shaw) – ман талаб мекунам ки маро хуб нигохубин кунанд.

It looks like raining. — ба мисли оне ки борон меборад.

I object to his having any acquaintance at all with my sister. (Dickens) — ман зиди оне ки у бо хохарам шинос шавад.

I rushed out to prevent her from seeing this dreadful sight. (Conan Doyle) — ман барои он гурехтам ки нахостам ки у ин холати бадро бинад.

… you may rely on my setting matters right. (Collins) — шумо метавонед ба ман бовари кунед ман хамаашро хал мекунам. My medical adviser succeeded in saving my life… (Collins)- духтури ман тавонист ки маро аз марг начот дихад…

You suspect me of stealing your diamond. (Collins) — шумо маро баои дуздидани брилиантатон гунахкор мекунед

I resolved not to think of going abroad any more. (Defoe) – ман касд ардам ки дигар дар бораи саёхат гап назанам.

I really thank you heartily for taking all this trouble. (Hardy) –ман аз шумо аз сидки дил минатдорам ки шумо хамаи ин машакатхоро ба ухда гирифтед.

I think everybody looked forward to his coming back. (Maughan ) — Я думаю, все с нетерпением ждали того момента, когда он вернется.

Don’t miss the opportunity of hearing this pianist. — гуш кардани пианинанавозро аз даст надихед.

3. With the following predicative word-groups (with or without a preposition): to be aware of, to be busy in, to be capable of, to be fond of, to be guilty of, to be indignant at, to be pleased (displeased) at,[1] to be proud of, to be sure of, to be surprised (astonished) at, to be worth (while), and some others.

Sir Pitt Crawley was not aware of Becky’s having married Rawdon. — Сэр Питт Кроули намедонист ки Беки ба Ревдон ба шавхар баромадааст.

I felt physically incapable of remaining still in any one place and morally incapable of speaking to any one human being. (Collins) — ман хис кардам ки холати физикии ман бад аст ва ман дар инчо монда наметавонам ва бо хечкас гап зада низ наметавонам .

I am very fond of being looked at. (Wilde) ба ман махкул аст ки ба ман менигаранд.You are really guilty of having connived with a German officer to help his escape. (Heym) — шумо дар ҳақиқат гунаҳкоред барои ёрдам додан барои гурехтани офицери немис.

Mr. Osborne was indignant at his son’s having disobeyed him. — Мистер Осборн асабони буд ки писараш уро гуш накард.

… she was not pleased at my coming. (Hichens) — у аз омадани ман у рози набуд.

… nobody knows better than I do that she (Mrs. Copperfield)… is proud of being so pretty. (Dickens) —ман медонам ки у барои 4и фахр мекунад. Are you quite sure of those words referring to my mother? (Collins) — шумо бовари доред ки ин гапхо ба модари ман таалук дорад?

The bridal party was worth seeing. (Eliot) — бояд туйро тамошо мекардем.

§ 22. The gerund and the infinitive.

With a number of verbs and word-groups both the gerund and the infinitive may be used. The most important of them are: to be afraid, to begin, to cease, to continue, can (cannot) afford, Го dread, to fear to forget, to hate, to intend, to like (dislike), to neglect, to prefer, to propose to remember, to recollect, to start, to stop, to try.

If the word-group to be pleased (displeased) is followed by a noun or pronoun the proposition with is used

I’m pleased with you (with your paper)

The young man began turning over the pages of a book (Priestley)

At length she began to speak softly. (Eliot)

She continued standing near the piano. (Eliot)

She continued to look at him… (Dickens)

It is sometimes possible to find a reason for the use of a given form. With some verbs and word-groups, such as to be afraid, to forget, to hate, to like (dislike), to prefer the infinitive is mostly used with reference to a special occasion, the gerund being more appropriate to a general statement.

The child was not afraid of remaining alone, but he was afraid

to remain alone on such a stormy night. — кудак аз танхои наметарсид лекин дар чунин торики танхо мондан метарсид.

I was always afraid of losing his goodwill. (Llewellyn) — ман хамеша аз даст додани обруяш метарсидам.

Gwendolen answered rather pettishly, and her mamma was afraid to say more. (Eliot) — Гвендолен бо кахр чавоб медод ва модараш аз давом додани гап худдори кард.

Don’t forget shutting the windows when you leave home. — пушидани тирезаро вакти аз хона рафтан фаромуш накунед.

Don’t forget to shut the window when you leave home, it is very windy today. пушидани тирезаро вакти аз хона рафтан фаромуш накунед, имруз шамол аст

I don’t like interrupting people. — ман одамонро аз кор дур карданро дуст намедорам.

I don’t like to interrupt him, he seems very busy. —ман намехохам к уро ташвиш дихам , у хело серкор аст.

With the verb to remember the infinitive usually refers to the future, and the gerund to the past.

I remember seeing the book in many bookshops. — ман дар хотир дорам ки ин китобро дар чанд магоза дидаам.

Remember to buy the book. — харидани ин китобро фаромуш накунед

With the verb to stop the infinitive and the gerund have different syntactical functions.

The gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

They stopped talking when he came in. (Galsworthy) — вакте у даромад онхо аз гап боз монданд.

The infinitive has the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose.

She stopped to exchange a few words with a neighbour. (Dickens) — у барои бо хамсояаш гап задан истод.

When the verb to try is used with the infinitive it means 4o attempt (to do), to make an effort (to do)’. With the gerund it means 4o do something as an experiment or test’.

Please try to be quiet when you come home. Everyone will be asleep. — илтимос вакте ки ба хона меоед кушиш кунед ки гавго накунед хама хоб хастанд.

I’ve got a terrible headache. I tried taking an aspirin but it didn’t help. — сарам безеб дард дорад ман аспирин истеъмол кардам лекин фоида накард.

§ 23. The functions of the gerund in the sentence.

The gerund may be used in various syntactic functions. A single gerund occurs but seldom; in most cases we find a gerundial phrase or a gerundial construction.

I. The gerund as a subject.

Talking mends no holes, (proverb) — сухбат кардан мушкилиро хал намекунад.

My answering in the affirmative gave him great satisfaction. (Dickens) — хуб чавоб додани ман уро конеъ гардонд.

The gerund used as a subject may follow the predicate; in these cases the sentence opens with the introductory it (which serves as an introductory subject) or with the construction there is.

It’s no use talking like that to me (Shaw) — бо чунин оханг бо ман гап задан бефоида аст.

There was no mistaking the expression on her face. (Coltins) — аз намуди зохирии у нафахмидан имконнопазир буд.

Note. There is another view according to which it is the subject and the rest of the sentence is the predicate.

The gerund as a predicative.

The only remedy for such a headache as mine is going to bed. (Collins) — рохи бехтарини начот аз сардард ин хоб рафтан аст.

The gerund as part of a compound verbal predicate.

With verbs and verbal phrases denoting modality the gerund forms part of a compound verbal modal predicate.

We intend going to Switzerland, and climbing Mount Blanc. (Ch. Bronte) — мо мехохем ки ба Шветсария сафар кунем ва ба Монблан бароем.

Joseph could not help admiring the man. (Heym) — Джозеф наметаонист ки бо чунин одам фахр накунад

With verbs denoting the beginning, the duration, or the end of an action, the gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

She began sobbing and weeping. (Dickens)

In the night it started raining. (Hemingway)

Bathsheba continued walking. (Hardy)

Tom went on whitewashing. (Twain)

She took my hand and kept on laughing. (Hemingway)

Isabella ceased speaking. (E. Bronte)

The gerund as an object.

The gerund may be used as a direct object and as a prepositional indirect object.

I simply love riding. (Galsworthy) (DIRECT OBJECT) — ман аз саёхати хавои фахр мекунад.

She enjoyed singing and playing to him. (London) (DIRECT OBJECT) —у аз навохтан ва бози кардан халоват мебурд.

The times were good for building… (Galsworthy) (PREPOSITIONAL INDIRECT OBJECT) — вакт барои сохтани хона хело мувофик буд.

Charlie did not succeed in taking things easily. (Priestley) (PREPOSITIONAL INDIRECT OBJECT) — Чарли натавонист ки ба ашёхо нигох кунад.

Predicative constructions with the gerund form a complex object as they consist of two distinct elements, nominal and verbal.

Perhaps you wouldn’t mind Richard’s coming in? (Dickens) (COMPLEX OBJECT) — шумо зид нестед ки Ричард ба дарун дарояд?

Aunt Augusta won’t quite approve of your being here. (Wilde) (PREPOSITIONAL COMPLEX OBJECT) — холаи Август рози нест ки шумо дар инчоет.

The gerund as an attribute.

In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition.

Swithin protruded his pale round eyes with the effort of hearing. (Galsworthy) — Суизин калон хуй кард чишми калони бе сивети худро барои онки инро шунавад.

She had a feeling of having been worsted… (Galsworthy) — У нее было чувство, что над ней одержали верх… … there’s no chance of their getting married for years. (Galsworthy) — умед нест ки онхо ба наздики хонадор шаванд.

Presently there was the sound of the car being brought to the

door. (Du Maurier) — садои мошинеро шунидам ки ба назди дар омад.

The gerund as an adverbial modifier.

In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition, ‘t is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time, manner, Pendant circumstances, cause, condition, purpose and concession; lhe most common functions are those of adverbial modifiers of time, banner, and attendant circumstances.

As an adverbial modifier of time the gerund is preceded by the deposition after; before, on (upon), in or at.

After leaving her umbrella in the hall, she entered the iivjn room. (Cronin) — баъди чатрашро дар толор мондан ба хонаи нухум даромад.

Не was to have three days at home before going back to farm (Galsworthy) — у бояд 3 рузи дигар дар хона меистод пеш аз ба ферма рафтанаш.

On reaching Casterbridge he left the horse and trap at ar inn. (Hardy) — дар баробари ба Кастербридж расидан у аспашро дар берун ва борашро дар дарун гузошт.

Mr. Bumble’s conduct on being left to himself was rather in. explicable. (Dickens) — рафтори мистер Бамбл нофахмо буд вакте ки у танхо монд.

Upon waking I found myself much recovered. (Swift) — вакте ки ман бедор шудам худамро бехтар хис кардам.

In quitting the room he paused once more at my desk (Ch. Bronte) — аз хона баромада у як бори дигар дар назди мизи ман истод.

Clare turned at hearing her footsteps… (Hardy) — кадамхои уро шнида Клер ба акиб нигох кард.

Note. In the function of an adverbial modifier of time the gerund sometimes competes with the participle.

George, on hearing the story, grinned. (Galsworthy) — Джордж, ин ходисаро шунида хандид.

The four girls, hearing him speak in the hall, rushed out of the library. (Eliot) — харч ори духтарон гапхои пешбудаашонро шунида аз китобхона баромаданд.

After reaching the second landing… I heard a sound of quiet and regular breathing on my left-hand side. (Collins) — ба поймонаки дуюм баромадан ман аз тарафи чап овози нафаскаширо шунидам.

Reaching the door of the room occupied by Cowperwood and Aileen, she tapped lightly. (Dreiser) — ба назди дари хонае ки Коупенвуд ва Айлин истода буданд оромона так так кардам.

(b) As an adverbial modifier of manner the gerund is used with the prepositions by or in.

She startled her father by bursting into tears. (Gaskell) — Она напугала своего отца тем, что расплакалась.барои гиря карданаш падарашро тарсонд

The day was spent in packing (Du Maurier) — руз бо чобачо кардани ашёхо гузашт.

(с) As an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances the gerund jS preceded by the preposition without.

She was not brilliant, not active, but rather peaceful and statuesque without knowing it. (Dreiser) — у зани хушру ё ин ки бехтарин набуд лекин у оромона меистод худаш инро хис накарда.

(d) As an adverbial modifier of purpose, the gerund is chiefly used with the preposition for.

… one side of the gallery was used for dancing. (Eliot) — як тарафи галерея барои ракс истифода мешуд.

(e) As an adverbial modifier of condition the gerund is preceded by the preposition without.

He has no right to come bothering you and papa without being invited. (Shaw) — у хукуки омада норохат кардани шуморо надорад падар то уро даъват накунем.

(f) As an adverbial modifier of cause the gerund is used with the prepositions for, for fear of owing to.

I feel the better myself for having spent a good deal of my time abroad. (Eliot) — ман худамро бехтар хис мекунам вакте ки дур аз ватан зиндаги мекунам.

I dared not attend the funeral for fear of making a fool of myself. (Coppard) — ман наметавонистам ки дар чаноза иштирок накунам ман худамро дар холати бад хис мекардам.

(g) As an adverbial modifier of concession the gerund is preceded by the preposition in spite of

In spite of being busy, he did all he could to help her.

The above examples show that the gerund preceded by one and the same preposition may be used in different functions: with the preposition without, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances and of condition; with the preposition in, it ay perform the function of an adverbial modifier of time and of manner; with the preposition for; it may perform the function of an adverbial Modifier of purpose or of cause.

Note. The Tajik not + gerund may correspond to the English without + gerund or not + participle. It corresponds to not + participle if it is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of cause.

Сурогаи мис Бетсейро надониста у наметавонист нависад . Not knowing Miss Betsey’s address, David could not write to her. (CAUSE)

If not + gerund is used in the function of adverbial modifiers of attendant circumstances and of condition, it corresponds to without + gerund.

Девид хечкасро хабардор накарда аз Лондон рафт. — David left London without telling anybody about it. (ATTENDANT CIRCUMSTANCES)

Бачахо ичозат напурсида аз хонаи Салем рафта наметавонистанд. — The boys could not leave Salem House without asking for permission. (CONDITION)

§ 24. The gerund and the participle.

In most cases the differentiation between the gerund and the participle does not present any difficulty.

Unlike the participle the gerund may be preceded by a preposition, it may be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun; it can be used in the function of a subject, object, and predicative. In the function of an attribute and of an adverbial modifier both the gerund and the participle may be used, but the gerund in these functions is always preceded by a preposition.

There are cases, however, when the differentiation between the gerund and the participle presents some difficulty; for instance, it is not always easy to distinguish between a gerund as part of a compound noun and a participle used as an attribute to a noun. One should bear in mind that if we have a gerund as part of a compound noun, the person or thing denoted by the noun does not perform the action expressed by the />7g-form: e. g. a dancing-hall (a hall for dancing), a cooking-stove (a stove for cooking), walking shoes, a writing-table, etc.

If wc have a participle used as an attribute the person denoted by the noun performs the action expressed by the ing-iorm\ e. g. a dancing girl (a girl who dances), a singing child, etc.

However, there are cases which admit of two interpretations; for example a sewing machine may be understood in two ways: a machine for sewing and a machine which sews; a hunting dog may be a dog for hunting and a dog that hunts.

§ 25. The gerund and the verbal noun.

The gerund should not be confused with the verbal noun, which has the same suffix -ing. The main points of difference between the gerund and the verbal noun are as follows:

1. Like all the verbals the gerund has a double character — nominal and verbal.

The verbal noun has only a nominal character.

2. The gerund is not used with an article.

The verbal noun may be used with an article.

The making of a new humanity cannot be the privilege of a handful of bureaucrats. (Fox)I want you to give my hair a good brushing. (Hardy)

3. The gerund has no plural form.

The verbal noun may be used in the plural.

Our likings are regulated by our circumstances. (Ch. Bronte)

4. The gerund of a transitive verb takes a direct object.

He received more and more letters, so many that he had given up reading them. (Priestley)

The verbal noun cannot take a direct object; it takes a prepositional object with the preposition of.

Meanwhile Gwendolen was rallying her nerves to the reading of the paper. (Eliot)

The gerund may be modified by ! an adverb.

Drinking, even temperately, was

a sin. (Dreiser)

I warned him against driving fast.

The verbal noun may be modified by an adjective.

He (Tom) took a good scolding

about clodding Sid. (Twain) I warned him against fast driving.

вазифа

ичроиш

I. Нусхаи ва ҳаракат пешниҳодҳои таъкид ба infinitive ва муайян намудани шакли он.

1) To save him was impossible.

2) The first practical result in this branch of law is known to have been achieved even in the Roman Empire.

3) About 40 students were thrown into prison to be charged with various offences.

4) The barrister was glad to present this man at the trial.

5) The results to be achieved will be of great practical importance.

6) In order to begin prosecution it is necessary to have evidence establishing the fact of the commission of the crime.

7) To pass a just sentence the court examines all the circumstances of the crime.

8) The solicitor is satisfied to be in preparing the case of theft.

1) ба он имконнопазир аст наҷот диҳад. Барои захира – фаъолияти номуаяни.

2) Маълум аст, ки аввалин натиҷаҳои амалии ин филиали қонун дар империяи Рум дода шудааст. барои ноил гардидан ба –Perfect-и пассиви.

3) такрибан 40 донишҷӯ, зиндони шуданд. Барои айбдор намудани ҷиноятҳои гуногун. ситонида шавад, -пассиви номуайяни

4) сафедкунанда барои муарифии ин одам хушхол буд – фаъоли номуайяни.

5) Натиҷаҳои ҳастанд бояд ба даст оянд, хоҳад аҳамияти бузурги амалӣ шавад., – пассиви номуайяни.

6) Бо мақсади ба оғози таъқиби, зарур аст, ки далели дар асоси он, дар содир намудани ҷиноят. ба сар дошта бошад – фаъоли номуайяни.

7) Бо маќсади расонидани ҳукми одилона, суд ҳолатҳои ҷиноятро меёбад. -. фаъоли номуайяни.

8) ҳимоятгар қаноатманд аст, ки дар омода намудани ҳолати дузди бошад –фаъоли пайвастаги.

III. истифодаи шакли зарурии герундия

IV. Аз нав сабт кардан таклиф таъкид ба онҳо навбати gerundive мустақил, тарҷума ба онҳо

1) We were against Mr. Bond’s going to London.

2) Would you mind my beginning this proceeding?

3) The boys were punished for their having broken the window.

4) Do you mind our being present?

5) I am used to their calling on me every day.

6) I know of his having been persecuted for his beliefs.

1) Мо зидди сафари оқои Бонд ба Лондон будем.

2) Шумо зид нестед ки ман ин равандро огоз кунам

3) писар, барои чизе, ки дар равзанаи пора ҷазо шуд.

4) Оё шумо зиди муаррифии мо нестед?

5) Ман омухта шудам он чӣ ӯ ба ман ҳар рӯз мехонад.

6) Ман медонам, ки у барои эътиқоди худ таъқиб мекунад.

V. Аз нав сабт кардан ва тарҷума пешнињодоти сифати феъли I (Participle I) ва сифати феъли II (Participle II) муайян, диққат ба сохторҳои иштирок дар тарҷума

1) The stolen car was found in the woods.

2) I thought I saw something moving along the track.

3) The injured woman was put into an ambulance.

4) He was watched examining the scene of crime.

5) I want this evidence taken into consideration.

6) The witness summoned to the court has been questioned by the judge.

7) Mike saw him standing in the doorway.

8) I heard the news being mentioned.

9) The student didn’t hear the question be repeated.

10) The thief tried to open my locked cabinet.

1) мошини дуздидашуда, дар Вудс пайдо шуд.

2) Ман фикр кардам ки чизе дар рох харакат кард.

3) Зане маҷрӯҳ дар таъҷилӣ гузошта шуд.

4) дар ҷойи ҳодиса ба ҷиноят тафтиш кард.

5) Ман мехоҳам, ки ин порчаи далел ба инобат гирифта шуд.

6) шаҳодат даъват ба суд, аз ҷониби судя пурсида шуд.

7) Майк Ӯро дид, дар даромадгох меистод.

8) ман хабареро шунидам,ки ахамият дошт.

9) донишчуён саволро нашуниданд ва хостанд ки такрор карда шавад

10) Дузд кӯшиш барои кушодани дафтари шахсии манро кард.

VI. Кор бо матнҳо.

1) Хондан ва тарҷумаи онхо.

A trial.

A trial may be defined broadly and comprehensively as a judicial examination of the issues between the parties. Although some variations may exist, trials are usually held before a judge sitting alone, a referee, or a judge and jury.

The counsels for the prosecution and for the defense make opening statements to the jury, outlining what each sees as the nature of the case and what each hopes to prove as the trial proceeds.

Next, the counsel for the prosecution presents his case by calling witnesses, questioning them, and permitting them to be cross-examined by the counsel to the jury, summarizing the evidence in a light most favorable to their respective clients.

The function of the jury is to determine the facts of the case, whereas the function of the judge is to determine the applicable law and to oversee the parties’ presentation of the facts to the court.

After the judge has instructed the jury on the applicable law, the jury will retire to deliberate in private until it reaches a just verdict, which will then be announced in open court.

The verdict of a jury terminates the trial. In a case tried before a judge sitting alone, the decision of the judge constitutes a termination of the trial.

кори суд

Дар мурофиаи суди метавонад васеъ ва ҳамаҷониба муайян карда шавад, ҳамчун омӯзиши ҳуқуқии субъекти бањсе, ки байни тарафҳо. хосиятҳои гуногун барои озмоишҳои вучуд надоштан – мурофиа аз ҷониби ягонаи судя, ҳакамон.

 Пешниҳодҳо аз ҷониби прокуратура ва мудофиаи дар шакли изҳороти давлатӣ аз ҷониби ҳакамон бо шарҳи биниши мавриди ҳар як аз тарафҳо ва интизориҳои раванди.

Он гоҳ, ки ьимоятгар аз масъули парвандаи даъват шоҳидон, мусоҳиба бо онҳо ва ба онҳо имконият медиҳад салиб-экспертиза, ҷамъбасти далелҳо дар нур мусоид аз ҳама барои мизоҷони худ аст.

Вазифаҳои ҳакамон барои муайян намудани далелҳои парванда, дар ҳоле, ки вазифаи судя барои муайян намудани ҳуқуқи татбиқшаванда ва назорати иҷрои аз ҷониби тарафҳо аз далелҳои ба суд аст.

Пас аз он ки судя хоҳад ҳакамон оид ба ҳуқуқи татбиқшаванда таълим, ҳакамон аст, ки барои инъикоси хориҷ бе шоҳидон, то даме ки ҳукме, ки оид ба суд кушода эълон надода бошад.

ҳукми доварон ба анҷоми мурофиа. Дар мавриди тафтиши парванда аз ҷониби судя танҳо қарори судя ба анҷоми додгоҳ аст.

2) Муайян оё мӯҳтавои пешниҳодҳои матн бо маркировкаи онҳо

1. Criminal trials are always held in front of a jury.

2. A judge may sit alone to hear a legal case.

3. At the beginning of the trial both counsels outline their case.

4. The counsel for the defense may cross-examine prosecution witnesses.

5. The function of the jury is to decide the applicable law.

6. The judge may intervene if the counsels on either side fail to observe the court procedures.

7. The judge advises the jury on the law relevant to the case.

8. The jury discusses their verdict on open court.

False

True

False

True

True

False

True

False

3) Рӯйхати иштирокчиёни мурофиа ва муайян вазифаи худро дар њукм.

The counsel for the prosecution presents his case by calling witnesses, questioning them, and permitting them to be cross-examined by the counsel to the jury, summarizing the evidence in a light most favorable to their respective clients and the function of the jury is to determine the facts of the case, whereas the function of the judge is to determine the applicable law and to oversee the parties’ presentation of the facts to the court.

4) Аз нав сабт кардан ва тарҷума матн навишта шудааст.

Judicial branch in Great Britain

British law is divided into two parts – civil and criminal. There are also two types of courts – dealing with civil jurisdiction and the other, with criminal jurisdiction.

The law of Britain distinguishes offences into main categories: a) indictable offences and b) non-indictable offences. Indictable offences are the more serious crimes, which must be tried before a jury. Non-indictable offences are all the rest and they are tried by the Magistrates’ Court.

However, nowadays there are many offences which may either be treated on indictment by a jury or by a Magistrates’ Court. When a person is brought before the Magistrates’ Court charged with one of the overlapping offences, the court may in many cases treat the charge as being for a non-indictable offence.

The principal courts of ordinary criminal jurisdiction in England and Wales include:

a) Magistrates’ Courts, which try the less serious offences and conduct preliminary inquiries into the more serious offences. They are presided over by Justices of the Peace;

b) Quarter Sessions which take place at least four times a year. They deal with more serious offences and are presided over either by a legally qualified chairman with a group of magistrates or by a single lawyer;

c) Assizes which are branches of the High Court and are presided over by High Court Judges. They deal with the most serious offences and cases presenting special difficulties.

филиали судӣ дар Британияи Кабир

гражданӣ ва ҷиноӣ – қонуни Бритониё аст, ба ду қисм тақсим карда мешавад. ба баррасии парвандаи салоҳияти шаҳрвандӣ ва – – дуюм – дар доираи ҷиноятӣ низ ду намуди киштиҳо ҳастанд.

Бритониё ҷиноятро ба категорияҳои асосии зерин таксим мекунад: $ A) таҳти таъқиби ҷиноятӣ б) мавриди таъқиби ҷиноятӣ нест. Ба ҷиноятҳо ба ҷавобгарӣ кашида мешавад ҳастанд ҷиддие, ки бояд пеш аз ҳакамон ба шумор меравад. ҳолатҳое Оё нест,ки ба ҷавобгарӣ кашида шавад, бо аз тарафи волиён ҳал карда шавад.

Ҳарчанд имрӯз бисёр ҷиноятҳо, аст, дар ягон судҳо дида намешавад – аз ҷониби ҳакамон ё магистратура. Агар шахс пеш аз волиён Суди, айбдор яке аз ҳуқуқвайронкуниҳои дар якҷоягӣ оварад, суд метавонад дар бисёре аз мавридҳо аз расонидани масъул ҳам дар мурофиаи ғайридавлатӣ ҷиноятӣ.

Дар судҳои асосии доираи ҷиноии оддӣ Англия ва Уелс, иборатанд аз:

$ A) волиён, ки ҳолатҳои камтар ҷиддӣ муносибат ва назорат тафтишоти пешакии ҷиноятҳои вазнин бештар аст. Онҳо аз тарафи як магистратура роҳбарӣ мешаванд;

$ B) аз ҷониби суд додани ҷаласаи семоҳа, ки ба талаботи на камтар аз чор бор дар як сол. Ӯ ҷиноятҳои вазнин бештар мебинад ва бо ягон раиси қонунан соҳибихтисос як гурӯҳи волиён ва ё каси дигар ҳуқуқшинос роҳбарӣ мекунад;

$ C) мурофиаи судӣ, branching аз Суди Олии адлия ва судяҳои Суди Олии роҳбарӣ мекунад. Онҳо ба ҷиноятҳои махсусан вазнин ва ҳолатҳои мураккабии махсус дида мебароем.

5) Определите предложения которые соответствуют содержанию текста, обозначьте их true или false

1. There are two types of courts in this country.

2. The High Court is presided over by Justices of Peace.

3. The principle courts of ordinary criminal jurisdiction include Quarter Sessions, Magistrates’ Courts and Assizes.

4. Assizes are branches of the Magistrates’ Courts.

5. Indictable offences are the more serious crimes.

6. Magistrates’ Courts try the less serious offences.

7. Non-indictable offences are tried by the High Court.

8. Indictable offences must be tried before a jury.

1. True

2. False

3. True

4. False

5. True

6. True

7. False

8. True

Infinitive. Revision exercise. Render the following sentences into Russian

1. Central Asia with its folded and platform formations is believed to have almost all known types of crust materials of the Earth.

2. Under the influence of certain forces, the Earth mantle appears to heat up periodically.

3. Propane can be transported in containers with a reasonable wall thickness.

4. In Figure 2 the stabilizing fin is assumed to be moving forward.

5. The Yale scientists used electrodes implanted in the brain to stimulate various forms of behavior in rats, monkeys, and humans.

6. A 10-second radio stimulus caused a mother monkey to neglect her child for about 20 minutes.

7. To make the ferroelectric ceramics, a chemically mixed powder is prepared.

8. Chargers should be disconnected, allowing the battery to cool.

9. Large tankers need 15 minutes and several miles to come to rest from their cruising speed.

10. At the same time, the user can request information to be displayed in the form of a diagram.

11. A rigid body is known to be a system of particles that always have a fixed relation to each other.

12. In the graphic method, the quantities are to be represented by corresponding lines or areas.

13. Two parallel forces, equal in amount, opposite in direction, and with different lines of action are known to constitute a couple.

14. The direction of the vector is said to show the direction of its plane and rotation.

1. Гумон меравад, ки кишварҳои Осиёи Марказӣ бо воҳидҳои платформаи яди ва он қариб ҳамаи намуди амонатҳо рӯи маводи Замин маълум аст.

2. Зери таъсири қувваҳои муайяни ќаъри Замин аст, давра ба давра гарм.

3. пропан мумкин аст, дар контейнерьо ғафсӣ муносиб бо деворҳои интиқол дода мешавад.

 4. Тасвири 2 имконияти як Propulsion холати шино эътидол нишон.

5. Олимон дар Донишгохи Йол истифода electrodes бадан дар мағзи ҳавасмандгардонии шаклњои гуногуни рафтор, дар каламушҳо, маймун ва одамон

.

6. 10-дуюм ҳавасмандгардонӣ радио сабаби маймун модари-тифли беэътиноӣ ба он тақрибан 20 дақиқа.

7. Барои гирифтани ceramics ferroelectric, хокаи омехта химиявї омода сохтааст.

8. Барои қатъ пуркунандаи, батареяро дорад хунук бошад.

9. tankers калон бояд 15 дақиқа ва чанд мил бошад, бас cruising суръат.

10. Дар айни замон, истифодабаранда метавонад иттилооти нишон дода мешавад, дар шакли диаграммаҳои талаб намояд.

11. Маълум аст, ки ҷисм аст, ҳанӯз ҳам системаи зарраҳо, ки ҳамеша муносибатҳои ҷорӣ бо якдигар доранд.

12. Дар усули графикӣ, арзиши тасвир хатҳои дахлдор ё минтақаҳо.

13. Маълум аст, ки ду баробари қувваҳои, ки дар миқёси баробар ва баръакс дар ин самт бо хатҳои гуногун амал як ҷуфт ташкил медиҳанд.

14. Барои мисол, самти вектори ба нишон самти ҳавопаймо он ротатсия.

Exercise 29. Give the most appropriate English variant using gerunds

1. бефоида назди худ даъват намояд, Ӯ дар ин вақт аст, ҳеҷ гоҳ дар хона.

2. Шумо зид набошед интизор якчанд дақиқа он?

3. Дар баёни мавзӯи нав омӯзгор якчанд мисолҳо дод.

4. Ман, ки чизе гуям: дар бораи он инкор мекунанд.

5. Ман ӯро аз ин саволи худ музде наметалабам.

6. Як дӯсти се маротиба минаҳо партофта, дуд, вале, натавонистанд.

7. Мо ҳама метарсем, аз он савол бипурсанд.

8. шумо хато кардед ки инчо омадед.

9. у бе бахшиш пурсидан аз ин чо рафт.

10. Ман нафрат дорам, вақте ки одамон аз ман саволҳои беақлона мепурсанд.

11. пеш аз тарк крдани Маскав назди ман биё.

12. оё боран бас кардааст?

13. ин кино дар экрани калон тамошо карда навешаад

14. утоқи шумо ниёз ба тоза арданро дорад.

1. It is uselessly calling him: he is always not at home in this time.

2. Do you mind waiting him a few minutes?

3. The teacher gives a few examples explaining new theme.

4. I will disclaim talking something about this.

5. I could not help answering him this question.

6. My friend gave up smoking thrice but he could not.

7. We are afraid asking this question.

8. You made a mistake coming here.

9. He left without making excuses.

10. I don’t like they asking stupid questions.

11. Visit me before your departing in Moscow.

12. Is the rain having stop?

13. This film is worth watching on big screen.

14. Your room needs tidying well.

Exercise 30. Render the following sentences into English

1. Зане ки нишаста буд, дар як кафедра – зани мухарир буд.

2. марди дар назди тахтаи синф истода маллими мо аст.

3. ман бегохии гузашта хоб карда натавонитам барои он и дар хонаи ьарам будаги кудак бе ист гиря мекард

4. ба Ненси дучор шудан баробар ашки шоди рехт

5. Чек пешниходро рад кард барои он ки банд буд

6. Пас аз хондани рӯзнома, ӯ чанд ҳарфҳои бизнесиро навиштааст.

7. ман раксидани шуморо дида хеч гох фаромуш намекунам

8. Оё шумо боре шунидаед ягон сухан бо испанӣ?

9. баробари ба хона бар гаштанд у кудакорро бо саг диданд

10. баъди ичрои вазифаи хонаги кудакон ба сайру гашт рафтанд

11. у дар диван дароз кашида китоб мехонд

12. баъд аз нушидани як пиёла чой у худро бехтар хис кард

13.у дар гирди хона давида ногахон истод

1. The woman sitting in the armchair is wife of editor.

2. The man standing near the blackboard is our teacher.

3. I could not to sleep last evening because baby crying in next room.

4. Having met Nancy Ann started cry with joy.

5. While being busy Jack refuse the offer.

6. Having read newspaper he wrote some business letters.

7. Having saw your dancing I never forgot it.

8. Have you ever heard somebody speaking Spain?

9. While returning home he find out children treating the dog.

10. Having do homework children gone for a walk.

11. Lying on the sofa he read the book.

12. Having a cup of tea she felt herself much better.

13. Running around the house boy suddenly stopped.

Exercise 34. Change the sentences using Participle II.

1. The events and the characters which are described in this book are purely functional.

2. The house, which was built two hundred years ago, stood in a long green valley.

3. He applied for a job. It was advertized in the paper.

4. The millionaire bought a picture. It was painted by Picasso.

5. They were disappointed with the meal. They complained to the manager.

6. The subject was arrested by the police. He turned out to be the wrong man.

7. The church was built in the fifteenth century. It’s in need of repair.

8. The girl went to the party. Her boyfriend accompanied her.

9. His words had the effect which he desired.

1. Described in this book events and characters are purely functional.

2. The built two hundred years ago house stood in a long green valley.

3. Advertized in the paper he applied for a job.

4. The millionaire bought a picture painted by Picasso.

5. Complained to the manager they were disappointed with the meal.

6. The subject turned out to be the wrong man was arrested by the police.

7. The church needed of repair was built in the fifteenth century.

8. The girl accompanied her boyfriend went to the party.

9. His words had the desired effect.

Exercise 43. Render the sentences into English.

1. Агар ҳаво нағз бошад, варзишгарон метавонанд натиҷаи хуб нишон диҳад.

2. Чун хаво, хеле гарм буд, кудакон дар хавои тоза хоб карданд

3. хаво хело торик буд чунки ягон ситора набуд

4. вакте офтоб нишаст саёхон оташ сар доданд

5. Агар ҳаво имкон диҳад, ки мо ба яхмолакбозии меравам.

6. Мо сӯҳбати дароз кардем ва у аз ман савол пурсид вам ан бо мехрубонона чавоб додам

7. Вақте, ки ҳама омодагӣ анҷом шуданд, ки мо рафта, hiking.

8. Вақте ки офтоб фурӯ рафт, зуд он торик шуд.

9. Вақте ки нома навишта шуда буд, вай зуд ба идораи почта гурехт

1. If the weather will be favorable, sportsmen can showing good results.

2. It being very warm, children slept on free air.

3. It being very dark, because there are not any stars on the sky.

4. The sun having setting, tourists lighted a campfire.

5. The weather permitting, we shall go to the skating-rink.

6. We are talked a long time: he having asked questions and I answered gladly.

7. The preparations having end, we take the field.

8. The sun having setting, immediately it is getting dark.

9. The letter having been written, she hurried to the post office.

Find in the text the English equivalents for the following phrases

– Бекоркунии қонунҳо

– Љорї намудани қонунҳо

– Шикоят ба суд олӣ

– Ќарорњое, ки ҳатмӣ оид ба судҳои поёнии

– Гумонбарии содир намудани ҷиноят

– Барои пеш расман айбдор

– Бимонед дар ҳабс

– Ваколатдор ба гӯш баъзе мавридњо

– Дар манфиати айбдоршаванда

– Барои шаҳодат

– Боздоштани мурофиаи

– Гузаронидани, барои шунидани парванда дар суд

– to abolish the law

– to apply the law

– to appeal to a higher court

– the decisions binding all lower courts

– suspected of committing a crime

– to make a formal accusation

– to hold in custody

– to be empowered to hear certain cases only

– in the accused’s favour

– to witness

– to interrupt proceedings

– to hear case

– to be represented by a professional lawyer

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