Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН, по случаю Года ООН, посвященного терпимости (1995 г.)

Специальное торжественное заседание

Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН, по случаю Года ООН, посвященного терпимости (1995 г.)

Господин Председатель!

Тематика объявленного Генеральной Ассамблеей года от­нюдь не случайна. Принимая 50 лет назад Устав ООН, государ­ства-члены Организации торжественно заявили в его преамбуле о своей решимости «проявлять терпимость и жить вместе друг с другом, как добрые соседи »

Сегодня можно с уверенностью сказать, что Организация смогла за достаточно короткий исторический отрезок времени не только разработать существенные нормы международного права в области прав человека, но и создать имплементацион-ные механизмы, осуществляющие контроль за выполнением го­сударствами своих обязательств по соглашениям в области прав человека Не менее значимым представляется и набор морально-политических обязательств, принятых на себя государствами в форме деклараций и резолюций ООН Последовательное осуще­ствление указанных документов нацелено на предотвращение ситуаций, ведущих к конфликтам, и снижению напряженности

Но, к сожалению, история последних лет показывает, что па­дение тоталитарных режимов и переход к демократии сами по се­бе не приводят к установлению обстановки мира, стабильности и безопасности Нарастающая волна нетерпимости и насилия, политического, религиозного и националистического экстремиз­ма захлестнула целые регионы мира Нас особенно беспокоит, что наряду с такими «традиционными» формами дискриминации

сейчас появляются ее новые, более изощренные формы Это прежде всего так называемая «тонкая дискриминация», при ко­торой произвол и беззаконие в отношении этнических мень­шинств преподносятся как возведенная в норму закона «истори­ческая справедливость» Примерами такого рода могут служить меры, предпринимаемые отдельными государствами для лише­ния части собственного населения права на гражданство, чтобы затем на этом основании ограничить доступ людей к управлению государством, их права на занятие должностей в системе государ­ственной службы, на создание ассоциаций, урезать объемы при­читающихся этим людям социальных пособии, пенсий, дискри­минировать в вопросах приватизации жилья и многих других ас­пектах повседневной жизни, включая свободу передвижения.

Обстановка на нашей планете за прошедший год, объявлен­ный нами в качестве Года терпимости, не стала более спокой­ной Однако определенные тенденции позволяют говорить о том, что усилия мирового сообщества в направлении создания обстановки терпимости не пропали даром сохраняет динамику ближневосточное урегулирование, участники конфликта на территории бывшей Югославии ведут трудные переговоры о послевоенном укладе жизни, продвинулись вперед процессы репатриации беженцев

С нашей точки зрения, это позволяет надеяться, что и в дальнейшем терпимое отношение к оппонентам как внутри страны, так и на международной арене будет служить основой для поиска взаимоприемлемых компромиссов во имя мира и безопасности на нашей планете Диалог как путь к выработке взаимоприемлемых решений для самых разных действующих лиц, будь то государства, отличающиеся по укладу своей жиз­ни, или этнические, религиозные, языковые группы, различные политические партии и движения внутри страны, продолжает утверждаться

Терпимость должна рассматриваться не как некая доктрина всепрощения конца XX века, а как одно из средств утверждения универсальных стандартов в сфере прав и свобод человека, содействия установлению равенства и недискриминационных отношений в ненасильственной борьбе идей При этом мы хотели бы подчеркнуть, что в нашем понимании принципы терпимости не могут и не должны восприниматься как форма пассивного залога идеалов мира и демократии перед лицом тех, кто сеет рознь, разжигает ненависть и призывает к насилию Эти принципы должны стать руководством к действию для

средств массовой информации и государственных структур, си­стемы образования, неправительственных организаций и поли­тических партий. А случаи их нарушения должны не только осуждаться, но и, в конкретных случаях, пресекаться, причем с использованием авторитета международного сообщества и влас­тью правоохранительных органов соответствующих государств.

Господин Председатель!

Принципы терпимости особенно важны для многонацио­нальных государств. В современных условиях демократизации и развития плюрализма мнений в рамках политических систем этих государств действует большое число политических партий и движений, на их территории проживают различные народы и этносы, а население в целом исповедует широкий спектр рели­гий. Именно для лиц, как в капле воды отражающих проблемы международного сообщества, концепция толерантности и равно­правия является не только значимой теоретически, но и должна применяться на практике во всех сферах жизни, включая соци­альные отношения, способы построения государственных структур и проведения внутренней политики. К чему могут при­вести дестабилизационные процессы в этих государствах, на­глядно видно на примерах бывшей Югославии и Руанды, где об­щество скатилось в пропасть гуманитарного коллапса.

Народы этих государств — а много ли на нашей планете го­сударств моноэтнических — нуждаются, и подчас остро, в помо­щи мирового сообщества в таких сферах, как разработка про­грамм преодоления и противодействия ксенофобии и экстре­мизму, рекомендаций по недопущению использования средств массовой информации для призывов к насилию, исходящих от экстремистских групп, защита от терроризма, укрепление закон­ности, развитие деятельности по общественной информации в сфере прав человека. В ситуациях же радикальных изменений политических систем крайне важной оказывается и способность государств следовать нормам толерантного политического пове­дения, при котором сохраняется ответственность перед всеми гражданами и законами.

Господин Председатель!

В наше непростое время на смену опасностям межблоковой напряженности пришла опасность дестабилизации обществен­ных систем в силу внутренних причин. Именно внутренние кон­фликты в государствах бросают сейчас основной вызов глобаль­ной безопасности. Но внутренние противоречия вполне естест­венны для любого общества. Неестественными можно признать лишь те ситуации, в которых стороны решают использовать для

их разрешения насилие, дискриминацию, прибегать к использо­ванию оружия. Принципы толерантности противостоят этим тенденциям, и мы согласны их развивать в сотрудничестве с са­мыми широкими кругами международной общественности.

В заключение хотел бы выразить уверенность в том, что идеи, возникшие в ходе проведения Года терпимости, найдут свое выражение в новых инициативах на благо мира, прогресса и социального развития. Нам на пороге третьего тысячелетия остается только подтвердить свою заинтересованность в дости­жении этих целей и объединить наши усилия.

Благодарю Вас, Господин Председатель.

Mr. President,

The General Assembly’s (proclaimed/announced) choice of a theme for this year is/by no means/certainly/definitely not fortuitous. By adopting/when they adopted the UN Charter 50 years ago the member states of the organization solemnly declared in the preamble their determination “to practice tolerance and to live in peace with one another as good neighbors…”

Today we can state with confidence that the Organization has been able within/over a relatively/rather/short period of time/of history not only to draw up/work out/produce substantive norms of international law in the field/area of human rights/in the human rights field/but also to create/establish a mechanism for implementation/for carrying out/controlling/monitoring/to carry out/ monitor/control implementation by states of their obligations/ commitments under agreements in the human rights field. Equally important/of equal significance are the (set of) moral and political obligations undertaken/shouldered by states in the form of UN declarations and resolutions. Continuous/constant/unflagging/unceasing implementation of these documents is designed to prevent/aimed at preventing situations leading to conflicts and to promote/at promoting a lessening of tensions.

Unfortunately, however, the (history of the) last few years has/ have shown/proved that the fall/collapse of totalitarian regimes and the transition to democracy do not of themselves/alone/single-handed/ lead to the establishment/creation of (conditions for) peace, stability and security. A growing/rising/increasing wave of intolerance and violence, and of political, religious and national extremism has swept over/engulfed entire regions of the world. We are particularly concerned that/by the fact that along with such “traditional” forms of discrimination new and more sophisticated forms are emerging/

appearing/coming to light. This involves/includes/means/ is/first and foremost/primarily/above all so-called “subtle discrimination,” in which arbitrary will and lawlessness regarding ethnic minorities is presented as the legalization of “historic justice.” Examples include measures taken by individual states to deprive part of their own populations of the right to citizenship, in order subsequently (by so doing/on this basis) to restrict/limit access to the management of state affairs/ affairs of state/the governing process, their right to take office/to occupy posts in the state civil service, their right of association/to form associations, to cut back on/decrease/reduce the quantity/volume of social benefits given/accruing/allotted/assigned to these people, including pensions, to discriminate regarding privatization of housing, and many/numerous other aspects of daily life, including freedom of movement.

Our global situation/the situation on our planet over/during the past year, which we have proclaimed as the Year of Tolerance, has not become calmer/more peaceful. However, certain/some trends do allow/make it possible for us to say that the efforts of the international community to create a climate/an atmosphere of tolerance are not in vain/futile: the Middle East peace process has not lost/has maintained its momentum, the parties to the conflict on the territory of the former Yugoslavia are conducting/carrying out/holding difficult negotiations regarding post-war (living) conditions, and progress has been made regarding the repatriation of refugees.

From our point of view, this allows for hope that in the future, too, an attitude of tolerance/a tolerant attitude towards opponents both within the country and internationally/both at home and abroad/ both on the domestic and the international scene/will serve as a basis for seeking mutually acceptable compromises for the sake of/to bring about/achieve/peace and security on our planet. Dialogue, as a way/means/path to produce/find/come up with/achieve/reach/mutually acceptable decisions for a huge range of individuals/all kinds of people, or for states which have different life styles/ways of living, for ethnic, religious and linguistic groups, and for various political parties and movements within a country continues to gain acceptance/maintain their positions.

Tolerance must be considered not as a kind of doctrine of universal/general forgiveness at the end of the XX century, but as one of the ways/means to reaffirm universal standards in the area of/regarding human rights and freedoms, and to assist in/promoting/ advancing the establishment of equality and non-discriminatory relations/attitudes in the struggle/battle of ideas. Moreover/In so doing/we would like to emphasize/underline/stress that as we see it/in

our understanding the principles of tolerance cannot and must not be perceived/viewed/seen as a kind of passive guarantee/earnest of the ideals of peace and democracy regarding/in dealing with/in coping with/when faced with those who sow discord, incite to/fan the flames of hatred and call to violence. These principles must be the guidelines/stimuli for action by the mass media and the state system/institutions, the system of education, NGOs and political parties. And violations must not only be condemned; in specific cases they must be stopped/halted/ended/terminated, using/bringing to bear the authority of the international community, and the power of the law enforcement agencies of the respective/individual/states.

Mr. President,

The principle of tolerance is particularly important for multinational states. In today’s conditions of democratization and the development of pluralism (of views/opinions), within the framework of the political systems of these states a considerable/large number of political parties and movements are functioning/active, their territories are home to/on their territories are active/ functioning/ various peoples and ethnic groups, and the population as a whole professes a wide range of religions. And it is precisely for those individuals, who so clearly reflect the problems of the international community, that the concept of tolerance and equality in all spheres of life is not only of theoretical significance/import/meaning, but must also be implemented/applied in practice in all spheres of life including social relations, ways of building the state system and of implementing/carrying out/conducting domestic policy. What destabilizing processes can lead to in these states is clearly visible through such examples/in such cases as the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, where society has slid/fallen/drifted/into/landed in/into the abyss of a humanitarian collapse.

The peoples of these states — and there are plenty/a plethora of multi-ethnic states on our planet — need — and sometimes badly need — help/assistance from the international community in such areas as drawing up/establishing programs to overcome and counteract xenophobia and extremism, recommendations to prevent the use of the mass media for the incitement to violence which comes from extremist groups, protection against terrorism, the strengthening of legality/the rule of law/, and the development of activities on public information in the human rights field. In particular, in situations of radical changes in political systems it is critically important/of critical/crucial importance that states be able to follow/abide by/capable of following/abiding by norms of tolerant political behavior and simultaneously maintain their responsibility to all citizens and to the legal system.

Mr. President,

In the difficult period in which we live/in our complex times the dangers of interblock tensions have been replaced by the danger of the destabilization of social systems as a result of domestic factors/causes. It is in fact/precisely domestic/internal conflicts within states which are now presenting/laying down/posing a special/particular challenge to global security. ‘But internal contradictions are completely natural/inherent to any society. The only situations which are abnormal/deviate from the norm are those in which the sides take a decision to make use of violence, discrimination and resort to the use offeree (in the search for a solution). The principles of tolerance are countered/opposed by these trends, and we have agreed to develop them in cooperation with the broadest possible range of public opinion/social groups/international backing.

In conclusion I would like to express/voice our confidence that the ideas which have come to light/emerged during the Year of Tolerance will find form in/be developed in/expressed in initiatives designed to serve the cause of peace, progress and social development. (For us) On the threshold of the third millennium all that remains (for us) is to reaffirm our interest in/commitment to/achieving these objectives and to unite/to pool/in uniting/pooling our efforts.

Thank you, Mr. President.

Комментарии:

  1. не случайна — “not fortuitous” sounds a lot better than “is not
    accidental” or “is no accident.” Another possibility would be antonymic
    translation: “this choice is a deliberate one.”
  2. принимая — More often than not Russian gerunds require a qualifier
    in English: “by adopting,” “in adopting,” or a phrase defining temporal
    circumstances: “when they adopted.”
  3. разработать — while “work out” is the dictionary translation, “draw
    up,” “produce”
    or “develop” are often better renderings.
  4. не менее значимыми — can be rendered as “just as important” or
    “equally important” rather than literally as “no less important.”
  5. история последних лет — can be translated as “the history of the last
    few/of recent years” or “history” can simply be dropped: “the last few
    years have shown/proved.”
  6. усилия международного сообщества не пропали даром — the efforts
    of the  international community have  not been  in vain/futile/come to
    naught, or, antonymically, “have achieved something.”
  7. …ведут трудные переговоры о послевоенном укладе жизни, продви­
    нулись вперед процессы репатриации беженцев — in a sentence of this

type with several clauses separated by commas, “and” must be inserted before the last clause on the list — “and progress has been made regarding the repatriation of refugees.” If the interpreter fails to realize that this is the final clause, and has failed to insert “and,” to produce a grammatical sentence he can add “etc.”

  • именно для лиц, как в капле воды отражающих проблемы междуна­
    родного сообщества — this expression is awkward in literal translation.
    “those individuals who so clearly/precisely reflect” comes much closer.
  • мы согласны их развивать — this calls for a compound present tense:
    “we are in agreement” or “we have reached agreement to” rather than
    simply “we agree to.”

Special Meeting of the UN GA (General Assembly) on the UN Year of Tolerance (1995)

(Читается с американским акцептом)

Mr. President,

The General Assembly’s choice of a theme for this year is certainly not fortuitous. By adopting the UN Charter 50 years ago the member states of the organization solemnly declared in the preamble their determination “to practice tolerance and to live in peace with one another as good neighbors…”

Today we can state with confidence that the Organization has been able within a relatively short period of history not only to produce substantive norms of international law in the area of human rights, but also to create a mechanism to monitor implementation by states of their commitments under agreements in the human rights field. Equally important are the moral and political obligations undertaken by states in the form of UN declarations and resolutions. Constant implementation of these documents is designed to prevent situations leading to conflicts and to promote a lessening of tensions.

Unfortunately, however, the last few years have shown that the collapse of totalitarian regimes and the transition to democracy do not alone lead to the creation of peace, stability and security. A growing wave of intolerance and violence, and of political, religious and national extremism has engulfed entire regions of the world. We are particularly concerned by the fact that along with such “traditional” forms of discrimination new and more sophisticated forms are emerging. This involves first and foremost so-called “subtle discrimination,” in which arbitrary will and lawlessness regarding ethnic minorities is presented as the legalization of “historic justice.” Examples of this include measures taken by individual states to deprive part of their own populations of the right to citizenship, in

order subsequently to restrict access to the management of affairs of state, their right to hold office in the state civil service,’ their right of association, to reduce the quantity volume of social benefits given these people, including pensions, to discriminate regarding privatization of housing, and many other aspects of daily life, including freedom of movement.

The global situation over the past year, which we have proclaimed as the Year of Tolerance, has not become more peaceful. However, some trends do allow us to say that the efforts of the international community to create a climate of tolerance are not in vain: the Middle East peace process has maintained its momentum, the parties to the conflict on the territory of the former Yugoslavia are holding difficult negotiations regarding post-war (living) conditions, and progress has been made regarding the repatriation of refugees.

From our point of view, this allows for hope that in the future, too, an attitude of tolerance towards opponents both at home and abroad will serve as a basis for seeking mutually acceptable compromises to bring about peace and security on our planet. Dialogue, as a way to reach mutually acceptable decisions for a huge range of individuals, or for states which have different life styles, or for ethnic, religious and linguistic groups and various political parties and movements within a country continues to gain acceptance.

Tolerance must be considered not as a kind of doctrine of universal forgiveness at the end of the XX century, but as one of the ways to reaffirm universal standards regarding human rights and freedoms, and to advance the establishment of equality and non-discriminatory relations in the struggle of ideas. Moreover, we would like to emphasize that in our understanding the principles of tolerance cannot and must not be seen as a kind of passive guarantee of the ideals of peace and democracy in dealing with those who sow discord, fan the flames of hatred and call to violence. These principles must be the guidelines for action for the mass media and the state institutions, the system of education, NGOs and political parties. And violations must not only be condemned; in specific cases they must be stopped, bringing to bear the authority of the international community, and the power of the law enforcement agencies of the individual states.

Mr. President,

The principle of tolerance is particularly important for multinational states. In today’s conditions of democratization and the development of pluralism, within the framework of the political systems of these states a large number of political parties and

movements are active, their territories are home to various peoples and ethnic groups, and the population as a whole professes a wide range of religions. And it is precisely for those individuals, who so clearly reflect the problems of the international community, that the concept of tolerance and equality in all spheres of life is not only of theoretical significance, but must also be implemented in all spheres of life including social relations, ways of building the state system and of conducting domestic policy. What destabilizing processes can lead to in these states is clearly visible in such cases as the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, where society has fallen into the abyss of a humanitarian collapse.

The peoples of these states — and there are a plethora of multiethnic states on our planet — need — and sometimes badly need — assistance from the international community in such areas as establishing programs to overcome and counteract xenophobia and extremism, recommendations to prevent the use of the mass media for the incitement to violence which comes from extremist groups, protection against terrorism, the strengthening of the rule of law, and the development of activities on public information in the human rights field. In particular, in situations of radical changes in political systems it is critically important that states be able to abide by norms of tolerant political behavior and simultaneously maintain their responsibility to all citizens and to the legal system.

Mr. President,

In our complex times the dangers of interblock tensions have been replaced by the danger of the destabilization of social systems as a result of domestic factors. It is in fact internal conflicts within states which are now posing a particular challenge to global security. But internal contradictions are completely natural to any society. The only situations which are abnormal are those in which the sides take a decision to make use of violence, discrimination and resort to the use of force. The principles of tolerance are countered by these trends, and we have agreed to develop them in cooperation with the broadest possible range of international backing.

In conclusion, I would like to express our confidence that the ideas which have emerged during the Year of Tolerance will be developed through initiatives designed to serve the cause of peace, progress and social development. On the threshold of the third millennium all that remains is to reaffirm our commitment to achieving these objectives and to uniting our efforts.

Thank you, Mr. President.

test

Добавить комментарий

Ваш адрес email не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *