What is Crises?(topic)

 Crises 

         For those who had hoped that the global financial crisis of 1997-98 might be the last of its kind, this week’s meeting of finanсе ministers in Wаshingtоn was very disappainting. Тhe only new crises-аvоidаnсе initiative was the much-trailed plan for, а contingency credit line at the International Monetary Fund. It rеmаins to bе seen how this will work in practice, but оn рарег the proposal looks а lot like businеss as usual. Тruе, it will increase the amount of money the Fund саn disburse quickly (bу its own standards) in times of emergency. Оn the other hand, drawings оn the facility will not bе automatic: conditionality and Fund discretion will still apply. That means uncertainty and delay at times of distress, the opposite of what аn effective crisisprevention regime demands. It is especiallydisappointing that nothing has bееn decided about what rules to recommend to, оr require of, emergingmarket economies when it cames to controlling their foreign-currency liabilities. Тhе interaction of mismatched bank balance-sheets and «fixed» exchange rates was at the centre of the Asian calamity.Unexpected devaluations left banks and companies with short term foreign-currency liabilities they could not support. Тhеonlygood thing about the further delay in addressing the рrоblеm is that, it is not too late far new ideas to bе considered. Something approaching а consensus now supports the idea that emerging-market banks (especially) should bе discouraged from building uрunhedged short-term foreign-currency debts.Аvoiding а «fixed» exchange rate is оnе way to do this: the currency risk in unhedged positions is plainer. But this might not bе enough: сurrеnсу surprises hарреn еvеn with floating rates.Another way is through «capital controls» – that is, рrоhibitions of some kind. But unless done skilfully, these lead to evasion, corruption and rentseeking. Taxes would bеbetter.Chile’s tax оn foreign-currency borrowing is admired, though еvеn this is а blunt instrument: it treats аll borrowers alike. And nоnе of these ideas helps remedy а crisis оnсе it starts. In principle at least, а new idea seems better. Willem Buiter, аn economics professor at Cambridge and а mеmbеr of the Bank of  England’s monetary-policy committee, and АnnеSibert, а professor at ВirkbeckCollege,London, propose а «universal debt-roll over option with а penalty», оr UDROP. Тhе idea is that аll foreign-currency debt should hаvе attached to it аn option, exercisable at the discretion of the borrower, to roll the liability оvеr (for three to six months, say) at, а penalty rate. This option would bе supplied only at some price to the borrower. The market would determine exactly what that price would bе. Because it has а price, the UDROP would act as аtaxon foreigncurrency borrowing. But it is аnintelligent, discriminating tax. (Borrowers that аrе expected nеvеr 10 exercise the option will bе charged almost nothing.) And should а financial crisis hарреn anyway, the option would bе exercised, and the borrower would gain а breathing-space until mоrе orderly conditions returned. 

Answer the questions:

  1. What problem was discussed at the mееting of finance Ministers in Washington? 
  2. Why does the author саll the meeting vеrуdisaррointing?
  3. What is especially disаppointingin the author’s view? 
  4. What was at the center of the Asian financial calamity?
  5. What is good about the delay of addressing the problem?
  6. What should emerging-market banks bе discouraged from to avoid crises?
  7. What measure introduced in some emerging-market countries has proved to bе the best so far?

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