The Political System of the USA
Washington, the capital of the United States, is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land which doesn’t belong to any state but to all the states.
Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches.The legislative power is vested in Congress and made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 435 members in the House of Representatives and 100 senators. Each state elects two members of the 100-member Senate.
The executive branch is headed by the President, who proposes bills to Congress, enforces federal laws, serves as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and with the approval of the Senate, makes treaties. President can veto a bill unless Congress by a two-thirds vote shall overrule him.
The vice President, elected from the same political party as the President, acts as chairman of the Senate, and in the event of the death of the President assumes the Presidency.The judicial branch is made up of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President for life. Federal courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between citizens of different states. The Supreme court may rule the law to be unconstitutional.
Now about the elections. The President is chosen in nation-wide elections every 4 years together with the Vice-President.
Constitution has been amended 26 times. The Bill of Rights guarantees individual liberties: freedom of speach, religion and so on. Later amendments abolished slavery, granted the right to vote to women and allowed citizens to vote at age 18.
The United States of America is a federative republic.
Since 1959 the Federation comprises 50 states.
The president is the head of the state and executive body. He is also the commander-in-chief of the army and Navy of the USA. The president and vice-president are elected for a term of four years.
All the legislative power is vested in Congress, which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 100 senators and 435 members in the House of Representatives. Two Senators from each state are elected by popular vote for a term of six years, the Representatives are elected for two-year term. Both houses must approve the bill for it to become a law.
An essential role in the US political system is played by the Supreme Court, which may declare a law, passed by Congress, to be contradictory to the Constitution of the country.
The various states have legislative and executive bodies of their own. Their structure, function and competence are determined by the Constitution of each state. There is an elected governor at the head of each state. States enjoy independence in their domestic affairs, including financial matters. However, state laws and actions of state authorities must not conflict with the Constitution of the USA.